Trachoma or granular opthalmia is contagious disease results from an infective agent called chlamydia. Trachoma is common, mainly in bad socioeconomic populations with bad sanitation and hygiene. There is approximately half a billion affected by trachoma all over the world, and it's one of the most common causes of blindness.
This disease is considered endemic in Middle East region, and some people got trachoma in the past, and they present today in non-contagious state.
Presumably, household fly and other flying insects transmit chlamydia and lead to trachoma.
Symptoms of trachoma:
Trachoma usually affects both eyes. Conjunctiva (the membrane lining of the eyelids and sclera) gets inflamed, irritated and red with excessive tearing, and swelling of the eyelids
In later stages, new blood vessels appear throughout the cornea (a process called neovascularization) that interferes with vision. In some patients, scarring of the eyelids occurs leading to inversion of eyelashes (trichiasis), so when the patient blinks, friction between lashes and the cornea leads to infection and usually permanent damage to the cornea. Diminution or loss of vision occurs in approximately 5 % of trachoma patients.
The macroscopic appearance of granules on the eyelids associated with acute redness and microscopic findings of chlamydia inside these granules confirm the diagnosis of trachoma.
Following strict hygienic measures and keeping the eyes always clean by frequent washing with warm clean water. Avoid using personal tools of patients whatever the causes and circumstances, and Vector control measures.
In early stages, ophthalmologists prescribe the proper antibiotics and medications to prevent and treat the diminution of vision. In advanced stages, surgery is done to remove scars and granules.